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فعل کمکی can, can't و حال استمراری

 

نویسنده: American-English File
مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

 

can, can't

1.    I can sing, but I can't paint.
2.    I can come on Tuesday, but I can't come on Wednesday.
3.    You can park here. You can't park there.
4.    Can you help me? Can I open the window?

 

•    can+ base form of verb معانی متفاوتی دارد:


1.    I can= I know how to. در اینجا مفهوم بلد بودن دارد (can).

I can't = I don't know how to.

2.    I can= It's possible for me. (در اینجا مفهوم توانستن دارد can)

I can't = it's impossible for me.

3.    You can= it's OK/ it's permitted. (در اینجا مفهوم اجازه داشتن دارد can)

You can't = it's not OK/ it's not permitted.

4.    Can you…? = please do it. (در اینجا مفهوم درخواست دارد can)

Can I …? = Is it OK if I do it?
 

- +

swim.

come.

help. 

can't  

I/ you/

He/ she/ it/ 

We/ they/ 

swim.

 come.

help.

 can

I/ you/ 

He/ she/ it/

We/ they/       

 

- + ؟
 can't.

I/ you

he/ she/it

we/ they  

       
   No, 
         

 
 can. I/ you         
he / she/ it 
we / they.

 
Yes,

swim?

come?

help?

  I/you/

he/ she/it

 we/ they  

             
Can   


         


•    شکل  Can, can't برای تمامی اشخاص (I, you, he, etc. یکسان است). 

NOT      He cans.

•    can't فرم مختصر شده can not  است. 
•    بعد از can نباید to قرار دهید:

I can swim.   NOT       I can to swim.


زمان حال استمراری

 

(present continuous = be+ verb+ -ing )

 

They're having a party in apartment 4.
Oh, no! The baby's crying.
It's raining.
A.  What are you doing?
B.   I'm waiting for my brother.

 

 

I'm working at home this week because my daughter's not feeling well.

 

- +
   having a party.

I'm not
You aren't
He/ she/ it isn't        
We aren't
They aren't

 

I'm 
You're
He/ she/ it 's
We're
They're

 

 

- + ?

 I'm not.

You aren't.

he/ she/ it isn't.

We aren't.

 They aren't.

No, 

I am.

You are.   

he/ she/it is.

we are

 they are.

Yes,   a   party?   having 

Am I

Are you

Is he/ she/ it

Are we 

 Are they

 

قوانین نگارشی برای(-ing form)

spelling

     Verb+ ing     

Base form 

add –ing

Cooking
stuying

 

cook 
study

 

NOT e+ -ing    

driving

drive

One vowel+ one consonant= double consonant+ -ing

shopping

shop

 

حال ساده یا حال استمراری؟

Present continuous

Simple present

Today she's working at home.

My sister works in a bank.  

What are you wearing now?

What do you usually wear to work?

Look! It's raining. It rains a lot here in the spring. 


•    هنگامی‌که بخواهیم از کارهایی حرف بزنیم که معمولاً آن‌ها را انجام می‌دهیم یا وقتی بخواهیم از چیزهای حقیقی صحبت کنیم زمان حال ساده را به کار می‌بریم. 
•    اغلب زمان حال ساده را همراه با عبارات و قیود تکرار به کار می‌بریم مثل: 

Always, often, once a week, etc.

•    وقتی بخواهیم از چیزی که هم اکنون در حال وقوع است از زمان حال استمراری استفاده می‌کنیم. 
•    زمان حال استمراری را اغلب با right now, today, this week به کار می‌بریم.
 

What do you do? Or What are you doing?

A:    What do you do? (= what's your job?)

B:    I'm a teacher.

A:    What are you doing? (=now, at the moment)

B:    I'm waiting for a friend.

 

Can, could, be able to (ability and possibility) 

 

Can/could

 

I can speak three languages fluently.
Jenny can't come tonight. She's sick. 
My cousin could play the violin when she was three.
They couldn't wait because they were in a hurry.
Could you open the door for me, please?

 


•    Can یک فعل وجهی است. فقط در زمان حال (که ممکن است با معنای آینده به کار رود) و زمان گذشته یا شرطی (could) به کار می‌رود.
•    برای تمام زمان‌ها و فرم‌های دیگر از ترکیب be able to + base form استفاده می‌شود. 
 

Be able to + base form

 

1.    Luke has been able to swim since he was here.
      I'd like to be able to ski.
      I love being able to stay in bed late on Sunday morning.
      You'll be able to practice your English in the US.

2.    Fortunately, I am able to accept your invitation.
       My colleagues weren't able to come to yesterday's meeting.

 

1.    برای بیان توانایی و امکان، هنگامی‌که نمی‌توانیم از can استفاده کنیم (.future, present perfect, infinitive, gerund, etc) از ترکیب be able to+ base form استفاده می‌کنیم.


2.    بعضی اوقات هم اگر بخواهیم رسمی‌تر باشیم، با زمان حال و گذشته به‌جای استفاده از can, could از ترکیب be able to استفاده می‌کنیم. 

 

American-English File , Student Book1 – Student Book3 : ترجمه از


نویسنده:

مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

امتیاز: 5 از 3 رای

تاریخ نشر: ۱۳۹۸/۷/۲۲ 10/14/2019 12:00:00 AM https://khazaelischool.com/articles/فعل-کمکی-can,-can't-و-حال-استمراری

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تهیه شده در: مدرسه زبان خزائلی

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