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جملات مجهول Passive

 

نویسنده: American-English File
مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

 

Passive: be+ past participle

Present: am/ is/ are+ past participle
Kevlar is used to make bullet-proof vests. (+)
White-out isn't used very much today. (-)
Are disposable diapers used all over the world? (?)
Past: was/ were+ past participle
The dishwasher was invented by Josephine Cochrane. (+)
Windshield wipers weren't invented until 1903. (-)
When was the washing machine invented? (?)

 

•    همیشه می‌توان موضوعات را به دو صورت بیان کرد، معلوم و مجهول:

Josephine Cochrane invented the dishwasher. (active)
The dishwasher was invented by Josephine Cochrane. (passive)

•    در جملات بالا در جمله مجهول، تمرکز بر روی کلمه‌ی dishwasher است.

•    همچنین هنگامی که معلوم نیست چه کسی کار را انجام می‌دهد یا داده است یا مهم نیست که کننده کار کیست؛ از فرم مجهول استفاده می‌کنیم:

My car was stolen last week.
Volvo cars are made in Sweden.

•    برای بیان این که کار توسط چه کسی انجام شده است از by استفاده می‌کنیم:

The Lord of the Rings was written by Tolkien.

 

ترجمه شده از 2 American-English File Student Book
 

جملات مجهول

 be+ past participle the passive:

1. 

A lot of movies are shot on location.
Our car is being repaired today.
Andy’s bike has been stolen.
The director died when the movie was being made.
You’ll be picked up at the airport by one of our staff.
This bill has to be paid tomorrow.

2.

Batman Begins was directed by Christopher Nolan.

 

. از مجهول زمانی استفاده می‌کنیم که یا نامی از کننده کار برده نشده باشد یا شناخته شده نباشد و یا ذکر آن اهمیت نداشته باشد:

Andy’s bike has been stolen. (= somebody has stolen Andy’s bike. We don’t know who.)

2. اگر بخواهید به کسی که کار را انجام داده است، اشاره کنید باید از by استفاده کنید.

•    می‌توانیم موضوعات را به دو شکل معلوم و مجهول بیان کنیم. جملات زیر را با هم مقایسه کنید:

Batman Begins was directed by Christopher Nolan. (= the focus is more on the movie).
Christopher Nolan directed Batman Begins in 2005. (= the focus is more on Nolan).

•    منفی و سؤالی کردن همانند جمله‌های معلوم انجام می‌شود:

Some movies aren’t shot on location.
Is your car being repaired today?

•    اغلب اوقات در نوشته‌های رسمی مثل گزارش‌های روزنامه از مجهول برای بیان فرآیندها (مثلاً فرآیندهای علمی) استفاده می‌شود:

Then the water is heated to 100 degrees…
Many buildings in the city have been damaged by the earthquake.

 

ترجمه شده از 3 American-English File Student Book

 

مجهول (تمام اشکال): .it is said that…, he is thought to…, etc

The passive (all forms)

Murderers are usually sentenced to life imprisonment. Simple Present
The trial is being held right now. Present Continuous
My car has been stolen. Present Perfect
Jim was arrested last month. Simple Past
The theater was being rebuilt when it was set on fire. Past Continuous
We saw that one of the windows had been broken. Past Perfect
The prisoner will be released next month. The verdict 
is going to be given tomorrow.
Future
 
People used to be imprisoned for stealing bread. Infinitive
You can be fined for parking at a bus stop. Base form
He paid a fine to avoid being sent to jail. Gerund

 

•    هنگامی که می‌خواهید از کاری صحبت کنید که تمایلی برای بیان این موضوع ندارید که چه کسی یا چه چیزی باعث انجام آن کار شده است، جمله را به صورت مجهول به کار ببرید.

•    در صورتی که بخواهید به کسی یا چیزی که کار را انجام داده (the agent) اشاره کنید از by استفاده کنید. هرچند در اکثر جملات مجهول به agent اشاره نمی‌شود.
 

it is said that…, he is thought to…,etc.

passive active

It is said that the fire was started deliberately.
It is thought that the mayor will resign.

The man is said to be in his 40s.
He is believed to have left the country.

1.    They say that the fire was started deliberately.
People think that the mayor will resign.

2.    People say the man is in his 40s.
The police believe he has left the country.

 

•    این ساختار خصوصاً در گزارش‌های خبری تلویزیونی با فعل‌هایی مثل know, tell, understand, report, expect, say, think به کار می‌رود. این ساختار سبب می‌شود اطلاعات، بیشتر جنبه عمومی و کلی داشته باشند. می‌توانید ترکیب را به این صورت به کار برید: it is said, believed, etc.+ that+ clause

می‌توانید از این ترکیب استفاده کنید:

He, the man, etc. (i. e., subject of the clause) + is said, believed, etc. + infinitive (e. g., to be) or perfect infinitive (e. g., to have been).

 

ترجمه شده از 4 American-English File Student Book


 


نویسنده:

مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

امتیاز: 5 از 3 رای

تاریخ نشر: ۱۳۹۸/۱۰/۹ 12/30/2019 12:00:00 AM https://khazaelischool.com/articles/جملات-مجهول-Passive

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تهیه شده در: مدرسه زبان خزائلی

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