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گذشته ساده

 simple past

 

نویسنده: American-English File
مترجم: رویا کریمی جنابی

 

 گذشته ساده افعال tobe : was /were 

President Reagan’s wife was an actress.
She wasn’t in class yesterday. Was she sick?
The Beatles were famous in the 1960’s.
Where were you last night? You weren’t at home.

 

•    برای صحبت در مورد گذشته از was/were استفاده می کنیم.
•    اغلب was/were را با عبارات بیان کننده ی زمان مثل .yesterday, last night, in 1945, etc  به کار می بریم.
•    با born از was/were استفاده می کنیم.

 

- +
wasn’t there. I/ he/ she/ it was there. I/ he/ she/ it           
weren’t there. You/ we/ they   were there. You/ we/ they        

 

- + ?
No, I wasn't. Yes, I was. famous? I/ he/ she/ it   Was

No I weren't.

Yes, you were. famous? You/ we/ they Were

 

گذشته ساده افعال با قاعده (regular verbs)

I played tennis this morning.
We watched a good movie on TV last night.
My grandfather lived in Sao Paulo when he was young. 
I studied Korean when I was at school.

•    برای بیان کارهایی که در گذشته انجام شده است از زمان گذشته ساده استفاده می کنیم. 

 

قوانین نگارش برای افعال با قاعده

spelling past Base form
add   -ed Watched
played
Watch
play
add   -d lived live
One- syllable verbs: 
one vowel+ one consonant=
 double consonant
stopped stop
Consonant+ y  > ied studied study

 

- +


 didn't work yesterday.

I/ you/    worked yesterday. I/ you/
He/ she/ it/ He/ she/ it/ 
We/ they/  We/ they/ 

 

- + ?




.didn't     

 

I




No,

 




did.

 

I




Yes,

 




work yesterday?

 

I




Did

 

you you you
he he he
she she she
it it it
we we we
they they they

 

•    didn't شکل مختصر شده did not  است.
•    در زمان گذشته ساده، آخر افعال با قاعده ed قرار می گیرد:

worked, lived, played.

•    شکل زمان گذشته برای تمام اشخاص (.I, you, she,etc) یکسان است.
•    برای سوالی و منفی کردن گذشته ساده از افعال کمکی did/ didn't و فعل اصلی استفاده می کنیم. Did گذشتهی do است.

 

گذشته ساده افعال بی قاعده (irregular verbs)

 

I went to Canada last night.

I didn't go to Toronto.

Did you go to Montreal? 

I went to Canada last night.

I didn't go to Toronto.

Did you go to Montreal? 

 

 

Past(-) Past(+) Base form
didn't go
didn't have
didn't get
didn't teach
didn't hear
didn't feel
didn't leave
didn't lose
didn't meet
didn't see
didn't wear
didn't speak
didn't do
went
had
got
taught
heard
felt
left
lost
met
saw
wore
spoke
did
go 
have
get
teach
hear
feel
leave
lose
meet
see
wear
speak
do


•    از گذشته فعل بی قاعده فقط در جملات مثبت استفاده کنید:

I saw a movie last night.

•    بعد از did/ didn't از شکل اصلی فعل استفاده می کنیم:

Did you see a movie last night?       NOT    did you saw…?
I didn't go out last night.                NOT    I didn't went….

•    به یاد داشته باشید که ترتیب کلمات در جملات سوالی به این صورت است:

Auxiliary, subject, base form:                              Did you go out last night?     OR
Question word, auxiliary, subject, base form:     Where did you go?

 

Could

Past of can= could
(-)= couldn't                 NOT      didn't can
(?)= could you…?          NOT     did you can…?

 

 

( regular and irregular )  زمان گذشته ساده: افعال باقاعده و بی قاعده

 

1.    be
-    (+)  I was born in Japan.
                      They were late for class yesterday.
-    (-)   she wasn't at home last night.
                      You weren't very nice to her.
-    (?)   Were you sick yesterday?
                      When was he born?

2.    Regular verbs
-    (+)   I really liked the present.
                      She wanted to be a doctor.
-    (-)   she didn't enjoy the concert.
                      They didn't arrive until very late.
-    (?)   Did you watch the game last night?
                      When did you finish the book?

3.    Irregular verbs
-    (+)   I went to Seoul last summer.
                      She slept on the sofa.
-    (-)   he didn't come home last night.
                     They didn't hear the music.    
-    (?)  Did you speak to your sister yesterday?
                      Where did you have lunch?

 

1.    گذشته be ، was/were است. برای منفی کردن، not را به آن اضافه می کنیم و برای سوالی کردن جای آنها را با فاعل عوض می کنیم.

2.    برای زمان گذشته افعال با قاعده به آخر آنها ed/d را اضافه می کنیم:

Like_ liked,     want_ wanted.

3.    شکل افعال بی قاعده در زمان گذشته تغییر می کند:

 

Go_ went,      see_ saw.

•     برای افعال باقاعده و بی قاعده ترکیب زیر را به کار می بریم( به استثناء can ):

-    Didn't+ base form to make negatives: I didn't like it. She didn't see him.
-    Did+ subject+ base form to make questions: Did you want to come? Where did she go?

 

Can/ could 


گذشته can ، could  است.

اگر بخواهیم آن را منفی کنیم، not را به آخر آن اضافه می کنیم:

(I couldn't find my glasses )

برای سوالی کردن هم جای فاعل و فعل را با هم عوض می کنیم:  

 (could you use your cell phone on the mountain?)

 

there is/ there are, some/ any+ plural nouns 

plural singular

There are some pictures on the wall.
There aren't any plants in the room.
Are there any neighbors with children?

Yes, there are
No, there aren't.

(+)   There's a garage.
(-)    There isn't a swimming pool.
(?)    Is there a bathroom downstairs?

         Yes, there is.
         No, there isn't.

 

There is/ there are 


•    از there is , there are برای این استفاده می کنیم که بگوییم کسی یا چیزی وجود دارد. از there is  برای اسامی مفرد و از there are برای اسامی جمع استفاده می کنیم. 
•    There is  را معمولا به صورت مختصر شده there's استفاده می کنیم اما there are معمولا به صورت مختصر شده استفاده نمی شود. 
•    اگر درمورد فهرستی از چیزها صحبت می کنیم، اگر اولین کلمه ی فهرست مفرد باشد، there is  به کار می بریم و اگر اولین کلمه جمع باشد there are را به کار می بریم:

In my bedroom, there's a bed, two chairs, and a desk. 
In my living room, there are two armchairs and a sofa.

a/ an, some and any 

•    معمولا با a/an, some, any از there is/ there are به کار می بریم.
•    برای اسامی جمع از some, any استفاده کنید.
•    Some را در جملات مثبت و any را در جملات منفی و سوالی به کار می بریم.

 

There is or it is?

 

حواستان باشد there is  با it is  فرق دارد:

There's a key on the table. It's the key to the kitchen.

 


There was/ there were 

plural singular
There were only three guests.
There weren't any more people.
Were there any windows?

 
(+)   There was an old TV.
(-)    There wasn't a remote control.
(?)    Was there a ghost?

 
Yes, there were
No, there weren't
        Yes, there was.
        No, there wasn't.

 

•    شکل گذشته there is/there are به این صورت است: there was/ there were.

 

ترجمه شده از کتاب  1 American-English File

 

گذشته ساده افعال باقاعده و بی قاعده

(regular and irregular verbs)

irregular regular  
We went to Brazil on vacation.
We didn't go to Sao Paulo.
Did you go to Rio?

 
I stayed with friends.
I didn't stay in a hotel.
Did you stay for the weekend?

 
(+)
(-)
(?)

 
No, I didn't. Yes, I did.  
Why did you go there? Where did you stay? Wh(?)

 

•    از گذشته ساده برای صحبت در باره ی کارهایی که در گذشته انجام شده اند استفاده می کنیم. 
•    شکل گذشته ساده برای تمام اشخاص یکسان است.
•    برای ساختن گذشته ساده افعال با قاعده، به آخر آنها ed اضافه می کنیم. به جدول قوانین نگارش مراجعه کنید. 
•    خیلی از افعال گذشته ساده بی قاعده هستند:

Go > went,      see > saw.

•    برای منفی کردن از didn't  و برای سوالی کردن از did استفاده می کنیم.
•    ترکیب های زیر را به یاد داشته باشید:

Auxiliary, subject, base form:                             Did you go out last night?    OR
Question word, auxiliary, subject, base form:       where did you go?

 

قوانین نگارش افعال با قاعده

spelling Past  Base form
add   -ed worked
stayed
work 
stay
add   -e if verb ends in e liked like
Y   >   -ied  after a consonant. Studied study

If verb ends in consonant- vowel- consonant,
 double the final consonant.

stopped stop

 

ترتیب کلمات در شکل سوالی

سوالات با do/does و did در زمان حال ساده و گذشته ساده 

base form(=verb) subject auxiliary  question word
live with your parents?
take a vacation last year?
work?
start studying English?
talk about?
you 
you
your sister
you
they 
Do
Did
does
did
did  
Where
When
what

 

 


Question with be

Adjective, noun, etc. subject be Question word
hungry?
a bank near here?
noise?
from?
born?
you 
there
that 
you
you
Are
Is
Was
are
were
What 
where

 

 

•    برای سوالی کردن فعل be ، باید جای فعل و فاعل را عوض کنیم:

She is a teacher. Is she a teacher?

ترجمه شده از کتاب  2 American-English File


نویسنده:

مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

امتیاز: 5 از 3 رای

تاریخ نشر: ۱۳۹۸/۷/۲۸ 10/20/2019 12:00:00 AM https://khazaelischool.com/articles/گذشته-ساده-Simple-Past

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تهیه شده در: مدرسه زبان خزائلی

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