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حذف به قرینه و جایگزین کردن

Ellipsis and Substitution

 

نویسنده: American-English File
مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

 

حذف به قرینه: حذف فاعل و فعل کمکی

Ellipsis: leaving out subjects and auxiliaries
 

1.    He got up and (he) took a shower.
She came to the meeting but (she) didn't say anything.
We should call him or (we should) send him an email.
We usually have dinner at 10:00, and then (we) watch TV.

2.    They locked the door and windows before they left.
Why don't we look at the photos after we finish dinner.
He's stressed because he has too much work.
She was horrified when she saw the mess he had left.
I met Sam while I was working in Italy.

 

1.    بعد از and, but, or اغلب فاعل تکراری یا فاعل تکراری و فعل کمکی را حذف می‌کنیم خصوصاً وقتی عبارات کوتاه هستند.

•    پس از then هم می‌توانیم ضمیر فاعلی تکراری را حذف کنیم.

2.    بعد از before, after, because, when, and while نمی‌توان ضمیر فاعلی را حذف کرد.


 

حذف به قرینه: حذف عبارات فعلی یا صفات

Ellipsis: leaving out verb phrases or adjectives
 

1.    Laura has never been to the US, but her sister has.
Gary thinks he's right, but he isn't.
I didn't like the movie, but Mike did.
They said I would love the movie, but I don't think I would.

2.    I thought I would be able to come tonight, but in fact I can't.
I know you never learned to drive, but I really think you should have.
A: You must see his latest movie!
B: I already have.

3.    I haven't been to Egypt, but I'd love to.
The students cheated on the exam, even though I told them not to.

 

 1.    اغلب اوقات صفت یا عبارت فعلی تکراری را حذف می‌کنیم و فقط فعل کمکی، فعل وجهی و یا فعل be را تکرار می‌کنیم:

Laura has never been to the US, but her sister has been there, Gary thinks he's right, but he isn't right.

•    اگر زمان فعلی که نمی‌خواهیم تکرار شود، حال یا گذشته ساده باشد، do/ does/ did را جایگزین فعل می‌کنیم.

2.    می‌توانیم فعل کمکی یا وجهی‌ای را به کار ببریم که متفاوت از فعل به کار رفته در قسمت اول جمله باشد.

3.    همچنین می‌توانیم پس از مصدر با to، عبارت فعلی تکراری را حذف کنیم؛ که به آن مصدر کوتاه شده می‌گویند:

I haven't been to Egypt, but I'd love to (go).

 

جایگزین کردن So و Not

Substitution: so and not
 

1.    I'll have finished the work by Friday, or at least I hope so.
A: Will you be working on Saturday?
B: I suppose so, unless we get everything done tomorrow.
Mark loves animals, and his sister even more so.

2.    A: Do you think it'll rain tonight?
B: I hope not.
A: she didn't pass the test, did she?
B: No, I'm afraid not.
The children may be back, but I don't think so.
I know she liked the present, even though she didn't say so.

 

1.    اغلب اوقات بعد از افعالی که در رابطه با فکر کردن هستند مثل assume, believe, expect, guess, hope, imagine, presume, suppose, think و همچنین بعد از افعال be afraid, appear/seem and say به جای تکرار یک عبارت کامل مثبت بعد از فعل، از so استفاده می‌کنیم.

2.    همراه با be afraid, assume, guess, hope, presume, and suspect با عبارات منفی از فعل مثبت به اضافه not استفاده می‌کنیم (e.g. I hope not).

3.    معمولاً فعل منفی به اضافه so را همراه با believe, expect, imagine and think به کار می‌بریم.

 

ترجمه شده از 5 American-English File Student Book
 


نویسنده:

مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

امتیاز: 4.89 از 9 رای

تاریخ نشر: ۱۳۹۸/۱۰/۲۴ 1/14/2020 12:00:00 AM https://khazaelischool.com/articles/حذف-به-قرینه-Ellipsis-Substitution

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تهیه شده در: مدرسه زبان خزائلی

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