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نقل قول Reported Speech

 

نویسنده: American-English File
مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

 

نقل قول غیر مستقیم

Reported (or Indirect) Speech
 

reported speech direct speech
He said (that) he loved me. " I love you. "
She said (that) she had just arrived. " I’ve just arrived. "
He told me (that) they would come at eight. " We’ll come at eight. "
Jack told Anna (that) he didn’t want to go to the party. " I don’t want to go to the party. "

 

•    از نقل قول غیر مستقیم زمانی استفاده می‌کنیم که بخواهیم گفته‌ی شخصی را به شخص دیگری اطلاع دهیم.

•    اغلب اوقات برای بیا ن نقل قول از (said/ told (+person استفاده می‌کنیم.

•    پس از said/ told گذاشتن that اختیاری است.

•    ضمایر در نقل قول غیر مستقیم تغییر می‌کنند مثلاً I به he/ she تبدیل می‌شود:

" I’m tired ". She told me (that) she was tired.

 زمان افعال به صورت زیر تغییر می‌کند:
 

Reported Speech Direct Speech

He said (that) he could help me.

(simple past)

“I can help you.”

(simple present)

She said (that) she was watching TV.

(past continuous)

“ I’m watching TV.”

(present continuous)

He told me (that) he would call me.

(would)

“I’ll call you.”

(will)

John told me (that) he had met a girl.

(past perfect)

“I met a girl.”

(simple past)

Sara said (that) she had broken her leg.

(past perfect)

“I’ve broken my leg.”

(present perfect)

 

 Say or Tell


برای نقل قول غیر مستقیم می‌توان هم از say و هم از tell استفاده کرد؛ اما این دوبه صورت متفاوتی استفاده می‌شوند. نمی‌توانید از said به همراه یک مفعول یا یک ضمیر استفاده کنید:

He said (that) he loved me. NOT He said me (that) he loved me.

اما told را باید با مفعول به کار ببرید:

He told me (that) he loved me. NOT He told (that) he loved me.

 

ترجمه شده از 2 American-English File Student Book

 

نقل قول: جملات و پرسش‌ها

جملات نقل قول شده
 

Reported Statements Direct Statements
She said (that) she liked traveling.
He told her (that) he was leaving the next day.
He said (that) he would always love me.
She told me (that) she had passed the exam.
He said (that) he had forgotten his keys.
She said (that) she couldn't come.
He said (that) he might be late.
She said (that) she had to go.
"I like traveling."
"I'm leaving tomorrow."
"I'll always love you."
"I passed the exam!"
"I've forgotten my keys."
"I can't come."
"I may be late."
"I must go."

 

•    از نقل قول برای این استفاده می‌کنیم که چیزی را که کسی به ما گفته به شخص دیگری انتقال دهیم.

•    هنگامی که فعل جمله مستقیم (.said, told, etc) به زمان گذشته باشد، زمان افعال جملات نقل قول شده به صورت زیر تغییر خواهد کرد:

Present> past
Will> would
Simple past/ present perfect> past perfect

 

مواقعی که زمان افعال تغییر نمی‌کند

 

وقتی چیزی را بلافاصله بعد از گفته شدن، نقل قول می‌کنید اغلب اوقات زمان فعل‌ها به همان شکل زمان افعال جمله اصلی باقی می‌ماند:


Adam "I can't come tonight."
 I've just spoken to Adam and he said that he can't come tonight.
Jack "I really enjoyed my trip."
 Jack told me that he really enjoyed his trip.

 

•    برخی از افعال وجهی (modals) هم تغییر می‌کنند مثل:

Can> could, may> might, must> had to

بقیه افعال وجهی به همان شکل می‌مانند مثل ...could, might, should, etc

•    معمولاً ضمایر را هم باید تغییر دهید:

"I like jazz." Jane said that she liked jazz.

•    استفاده از that بعد از said, told اختیاری است.

•    اگر سخن شخصی را در روز دیگر و یا در مکان دیگری نقل قول می‌کنید، برخی دیگر از لغات مربوط به زمان و مکان را می‌توانید تغییر دهید:

tomorrow> the next day, here> there, this> that, etc.
"I'll meet you here tomorrow." He said he'd meet me there the next day.

 

حواستان باشد بعد از said نباید ضمیر فاعلی یا مفعولی به کار برید:

He said he was tired. NOT He said me….

اما بعد از told حتماً باید یک شخص یا ضمیر بیاورید:


Sarah told Cally that she would call her. NOT Sarah told that she….
He told me he was tired. NOT He told he was….

 

پرسش‌های نقل قول شده

Reported Questions Direct Questions
She asked him if he was married.
He asked me whether she had called.
I asked him what his name was.
He asked me where I lived.

"Are you married?"
"Did she call?"
"What's your name?"
"Where do you live?"

 

•    وقتی پرسشی را نقل قول می‌کنید، زمان افعال مانند جملات نقل قول تغییر می‌کند.

•    وقتی سؤالی با یکی از کلمات پرسشی شروع نمی‌شود، if/weather را اضافه کنید:

"Do you want a drink?" He asked me if/whether I wanted a drink.

•    ترتیب کلمات را هم باید به صورت (subject+ verb) تغییر دهید و از do/did هم استفاده نکنید.

 

ترجمه شده از 3 American-English File Student Book
 

 


نویسنده: American-English File

مترجم: رؤیا کریمی جنابی

امتیاز: 5 از 3 رای

آموزشگاه زبان خزائلی مدرسه زبان خزائلی :تهیه شده


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